Monday, 26 November 2012

Vestiges of the Danelaw in Humberstone, Part 2

Welcome to part 2 of our study into the Vestiges of the Danelaw in Humberstone, Leicester. To read Part 1, click here. In this part we start by looking at the archaeological evidence that Humberstone was once a Viking Settlement, named after the Viking Prince, Hubba.

If the village was named after a powerful prince, and if the landscape was ceremonial to the Vikings, there should have been some sort of ceremonial structure, or centre of worship, in the village. Failing that there should surely be some kind of archaeological evidence for their existence. As I have already stated the archaeological record of the Viking invasion of Leicester is notoriously poor and Humberstone is no exception to this.

There has never been a major discovery of Danish archaeology in the village. There is arguably some pottery but as Leicester archaeologist Peter Liddle points out: “the lack of change of pottery types associated with Late Saxon and Norman occupation makes it difficult to separate occupation of the 10th to 12th century.”

Even though there are no archaeological finds, I believe that Humberstone village has some of the best examples of Viking art in the county, if not the country, and if my bold claim is correct, the reliefs in question have been in plain sight for hundreds of years.

They first received media attention in the Leicester Mercury newspaper on June 16, 1978. The headline Dragon on the Tower stole page 18, and the picture mirrored the headline, it was a photograph of the dragon on Humberstone church tower. A dragon is a highly unusual relief to find on a Leicestershire church, but it isn’t the only thing of interest here. There is a large collection of ancient stone art on the north, south and east sides of St. Mary’s church. On the south side there are two reliefs of human figures clearly not in-situ as they are lying on their sides. We can also see two cinquefoils, each surrounded by four stars.

The north side of the tower has three, more whimsical images. There is a hare chasing a dragon and a forest creature covering another depiction of the hare. The central relief appears to be a hunting scene – a man blowing a horn, leading a pack of dogs or wolves as they chase a wild boar. Separating each frieze is a small square of darker coloured stone, each displaying a bird of some description.

On the east side are more decorative freizes, separated again by two square, black stones, this time displaying the famous image of the star and crescent. For years these fanciful, rather non-Christian stone works have baffled me. For a start here is very little information to go on. Villagers and village history books say they are Christian. They say that the hare represents Christ who is chasing away the devil, who here is portrayed as a dragon. They say the two men lying sideways are St. Peter and St. Paul. These interpretations may well be true, but they are founded on no obvious knowledge (well none that I can find anyway) and the hunting scene has no viable Christian explanation.

The tower of Humberstone church, on which the carvings are incorporated, was built sometime in the mid-fourteenth century, and as the 1978 Leicester Mercury article suggests, the carvings appear somewhat older and could have possibly decorated the first church that was built on the site in the 12th century.

This was my starting point. The carvings must have been older as they are made from a very different stone to the actual tower. The two human figures have been placed on their sides, clearly not the way they were originally intended. Therefore the carvings clearly pre-date the 14th century and after much research I have concluded that they even pre-date the first 12th century Norman church.

Skilled stonemasons didn’t create beautiful works of art at random; everything in the ancient world, of this calibre at least, had a meaning. The Humberstone church reliefs have no obvious Norman connection so I delved further back in time – to the Viking era, a time when I believe the settlement at Humberstone was founded.

When the Vikings invaded Britain their myths and legends were promoted alongside Christianity (and sometimes together) just about all Viking art is centred on their belief system. Humberstone, it seems, is no exception to this.

1) The Wild Hunt
The Wild Hunt is an ancient folk myth prevalent across Northern, Western and Central Europe. Most ancient cultures tell a variant of this legend but the one that fits perfectly with this relief at Humberstone is the Norse myth.

So why am I so sure the reliefs at Humberstone are Norse in origin? Well, after looking through Scandinavian myths and legends every relief can be interpreted. Some fit into Christian myths, some fit into Anglo-Saxon myths, some could be interpreted as Norman, but not all of them. When you wade through Norse mythology, each scene can be interpreted as an important Scandinavian myth.

The Wild Hunt on Humberstone Church tower
It was known as Odin’s Hunt. Odin is a major Norse god and leader of the Asgard – one of the nine worlds of the Norse religion and the country or capital city of the Norse gods. The ‘Poetic Edda’ is a collection of Old Norse poems, primarily collected in Iceland, which records Odin’s Hunt in fine detail.

According to Edda, Odin had two cherished wolves (sometimes interpreted as hounds) for pets and had a roasted boar for the daily piece de resistance of his table. With his two dogs Odin was primarily a lone hunter but when joined by his Valkyries, Odin was the leader of the hunt. The hunt begins on October 31 and doesn't end until May Eve (April 30) of the following year. These two nights were special, because lights go out on all Nine Worlds and the spirits and goblins are free to roam on the earth's surface. The height of the Wild Hunt falls on the night of midwinter festival, known as Yule (December 21), traditionally the shortest day of the year in Scandinavia. The Yule Boar was traditionally eaten on the sacred day.

The Norse god Freyr had a Golden Boar, which was a representation of the spring and summer sun. Therefore the traditional scene of hunting the boar was an Old Norse winter story – i.e. when the sun is at its lowest, the days shortest and temperature lowest and the sacrificed boar (sun) was eaten to mark the onset of winter. The rebirth or regeneration of the sun in many ancient cultures was May Day, the same date when, according to Norse legend, Odin’s Hunt came to an end.

2. Ragnarok

There is, however, an alternative theory to the hunting scene. In Norse mythology, the story of Ragnarok is a series of future events, including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major gods including Odin, Thor, Freyr and Loki. It told of a series of natural disasters and the subsequent submersion of the world in water. Afterward, the world is said to resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and reborn gods will meet and the world will be repopulated.

Like Odin’s Hunt, Ragnarok is one of the most important events in the Norse canon. Ragnarok begins with god Heimdall blowing on his mighty horn, called the Gjallarhorn. The sound of the horn could be heard loud and clear throughout the nine worlds. Heimdall was to blow the horn when he saw the enemies arriving as Ragnarok approached. Ragnarok was the end of the world. When the gods of Asgard heard the sound of the Gjallarhorn they were warned to get ready for the final battle. So, the hunter in the scene could well be Odin from Odin’s Hunt or Heimdall from Ragnarok.

As Ragnarok begins, the wolf Sköll devours the sun, while his brother, Hati, eats the moon. These could be the two wolves in the carving seen chasing the wild boar, not least because in Norse mythology, the boar is also thought to be a symbol of the sun.

The god Freyr had a golden boar called Gullinbursti, who was made by the dwarves Brokk and Eitri. Gullinbursti was faster than any horse and travelled over water and through the air. He glowed with a golden light, had golden bristles that shone like rays of the sun and made plants grow. It could drive away any shadow and turn night to day. Many warriors wore the image of Freyr’s golden boar on their helmets and shields for protection and good luck.

The boar clearly has a solar connection. With Heimdall blowing the horn and with the wolves chasing the boar, this frieze on the church could well be a scene from Ragnarok. It is worth noting that there is a variety of crossover in Norse folklore where some, seemingly unrelated stories, may infer the same thing. Odin’s Hunt and destruction of the sun in Ragnarok may well be allegories for the same event, whether nightfall, winter and an apocalyptic event that wipes out the sun.

3. The Seed of Humanity

When the Earth is destroyed in Ragnarok, two characters, namely Lif and Lifthrasir, the future seed for all humanity, are protected by Hoddmimir’s Forest (or Holt) where they fall asleep under a protective tree, thought by scholars to be the World Tree of Old Norse mythology, known as Yggdrasil. Yggdrasil is thought to be the same as another Norse tree, called Mímameiðr (meaning “Mimi's Tree”). Mímameiðr had branches that stretched over every land and was unharmed by fire and bears fruit that assists pregnant women. Interestingly Hoddmimir’s forest was the only place on Earth that the evil fire god, Surtr, was unable to destroy in Ragnarok, which shows a direct connection between Hoddmimir’s Forest and Mímameiðr. Hoddmimir, Mímameiðr and Yggdrasil are all thought to be the same mythical place, or at the very least, are thought to be in the same locality.

The seed of humanity - the hare - protected
In this image from Humberstone church tower, Lif and Lifthrasir are represented by a fertility symbol – the most common fertility symbol found throughout European culture – a hare, and a sleeping hare at that. Hoddmimir’s Forest is personified as a tree creature protecting the hare which, as a fertility symbol, means that it is protecting the seed of humanity. As stated, Hoddmimir’s Forest is the same as (or contained) Mímameiðr, which assisted pregnant women, or in this case assisted the fertility symbol of the hare, which denotes the pregnant woman. It is worth noting that mythology says that the fruits of Mímameiðr were said to assure safe childbirth, or in other words, protected the seed of humanity (the hare).

As the hare was the universal symbol of fertility the artist who created this frieze used imagery that would be as identifiable with the Vikings as it would be with ancient British, which would have been of paramount importance. The people of Leicestershire were conquered by the Vikings so it would be easier to explain a story with already identifiable imagery, than to introduce two new characters in Lif and Lifthrasir.

In ancient Britain the hare had already been a fertility symbol for hundreds of years as it was associated with Easter, which in pagan times was a fertility festival named after the ancient British fertility god Eostre. Since hares give birth to large litters around Easter time, they became symbols of the rising fertility of the Earth. Hares symbolised the start of the spring, they symbolised the Vernal Equinox, the goddess Eostre, and then Easter, which always falls on the Sunday after the first full moon of spring. Interestingly the Old Norse fertility goddess, Freyr, shares many attributes with Eostre and both have relationships with hares.

There were numerous hare customs in ancient Britain too, the most so in Leicestershire. On Easter Monday the ‘Dane Hills Hare Hunt’ used to take place where a dead hare (and later a dead cat) was tied to a horse’s tail and huntsmen would chase it all the way to the Mayor’s door before a great feast would take place. In Hallaton, the ancient hare-pie scramble still continues to the present day, as does the famous bottle-kicking event.

4. Surtr

As mentioned above, Lif and Lifthrasir escaped the clutches of Surtr, a major figure in Ragnarok. In the myth he is said to carry an enormous, magical sword. He will raise his hand and breathe his flames over the earth to burn the entire world.

The carving of the swordsman on Humberstone church tower has been interpreted by various people as St. Peter due to the inclusion of the sword, but what has not been explained is his hand which is up by his mouth. Numerous characters in mythology and history have wielded a sword, but due to the Norse origins of the village, I have identified this character as Surtr.

Surtr breathing fire
In this depiction he is holding his mighty sword. He has his hand raised and his head even looks like it is leaning forward like he is about to breathe fire. On a closer look at the frieze, his mouth is missing, as is a chunk of stone below the hand. Maybe there was carved fire which has since eroded away.

The other possible identity of this character is the legendary Sigurd, who is often portrayed with his hand raised to his mouth sucking his thumb, and is also seen holding a sword. Examples of this can be seen on the Manx stones on the Isle of Man, on the famous Halton cross near Lancashire and also on stones in Norway. Sigurd shucks his thumb because he burns it whilst roasting a dragon’s heart. The juice from his thumb gives him the power to understand the speech of birds. Whether or not this is Sigurd in Humberstone is unknown, but it is another possible Viking interpretation that deserves further investigation.

5. The End of Ragnarok

Everything that begins must have an end. After the destruction of Ragnarok a new and idyllic world is said to arise from the sea and filled with abundant supplies. Some of the gods will survive, while others will be reborn. Wickedness and misery will no longer exist and the gods and men will live happily together. The descendants of Lif and Lifthrasir will inhabit the earth.

The third relief on Humberstone Church tower is the aftermath of Ragnarok where we see the rise of the hare which is seen chasing away a dragon. Dragons, as you may guess, are rife in ancient mythology and there is no exception to Scandinavian myths. As we have already stated the hare represents Lif and Lithrasir – the protected seed of humanity. The hare also represents spring and the rebirth of the sun and the earth after winter.

The end of ragnarok
In Ragnarok, the harsh winter that precedes the end of the world and puts an end to all life on Earth is called Fimbulwinter. Fimbulwinter is three successive winters where snow comes in from all directions, without any intervening summer.

The tree of life, as we have seen, protects the seed of man, but the tree has an enemy called Nidhogg.

In Norse myth, Nidhogg is the “tearer of corpses” – a monstrous serpent or dragon that hides in a pit and forever gnaws  almost  perpetually  at  the  deepest root of  the World Tree, Yggdrasil, threatening to destroy it. The tree is a place where the gods judge and by continually gnawing on it, Nidhogg is thought to be attempting to destroy the universe. Nidhogg represents the land of the dead. As it attempts to destroy the World Tree with other beastly creatures, it eats corpses to sustain itself.

In the Highlands and Islands of Scotland there are numerous dragon myths similar to the Scandinavian myths. One such myth speaks of a dragon that craves berries from ‘the Tree of Life,’ and haunts its roots, holding it captive. This, as you can see, is very similar to the Norse myth. In Indian cultures, there is a winter monster known as the “confiner” that holds captive the rivers and Indra is the spring or summer sun which frees them from the clutches of the winter dragon.

In ancient cultures, winter is known as a time when the sun has died. The world is colder, crops don’t grow and in Ancient Britain, winter started with the ‘Festival of the Dead’ known as Samhain, a similar version of which was seen throughout Europe in history. As Nidhogg is the ‘tearer of corpses’ he is therefore likely to represent the harsh winter as winter is the time when the land is infertile – the land of the dead, so to speak.

There is another Norse legend that backs this theory up – a theory that also associates dragons with winter. The dwarf Fafnir turned himself into a dragon to protect his gold (thought to represent the sun suring winter). Fáfnir breathed poison into the land around him so no one would go near him and his treasure, wreaking terror in the hearts of the people. It was up to Sigurd, interpreted by scholars as the sun god, to slay the dragon and hence end winter and bring forth spring.

The best piece of evidence for the Winter dragon comes from The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki. It states:

“As Yuletime drew near, gloom settled over the men.  Bodvar asked Hott what caused their dejection. Hott told him that a huge, monstrous beast had come there the past two winters.  ‘The creature has wings on its back and it usually flies.  For two autumns now it has come here, causing much damage.  No weapon can bite into it, and the king’s champions, even the greatest among them, do not return home.”

Again we see a dragon with a more blatant association with winter that once again causes damage and destruction, as well as death.

Wyverns also feature heavily in Saxon mythology. Wyverns are like dragons and myths in Britain say they lived in dark caves and collected shiny objects and baubles and took them into the darkness of their caves – yet more winter symbolism with the sun (shiny object) taken into the darkness of the cave by the wyvern dragon.

The ‘winter dragon’ is a common character in world mythology. He is seen in the Indian Vritra, the ‘confiner’ that holds captive the rivers, while Indra is the spring or summer sun which frees them from the clutches of the winter dragon. Various Celtic myths talk of a monster swallowing the sun and in Chinese legends a dragon also swallows the sun. There are many dragons in the myths of Eastern Europe where some would try to swallow the sun and cause an eclipse. In Saxon and early-Christian history the dragon represents evil and darkness. The early Christian church used heroic tales of saints and dragon slayers to illustrate good conquering evil and light conquering the darkness.

There is a myth of Coed-y-Moch in Wales that speaks of ‘The curse of the Wyvern’ that lay like a pestilence upon the people. The monster hunted human being and beast alike, destroyed every living creature which it caught. Therefore it represented death like other winter fables.

The Humberstone carving is an early carving of the winter dragon being defeated, shown by the conqueror being a hare, not a saint. It is a clear depiction of the spring sun conquering the winter dragon, a pagan myth, which at the time of the carving was yet to be Christianised.

In Ragnarok, the world suffers an awful long winter, but the winter does end and Lif and Lithrasir become free to inhabit the world. They represent spring, they represent the land becoming fertile again and the universal symbol of the hare was used throughout the ancient world to represent spring. On the third frieze on Humberstone Church, the hare chasing away the dragon portrays end of winter and the onset of spring, as well as the end of Ragnarok and the rebirth of the world. Dragons and wyverns represented war, pestilence and viciousness and the hare chasing away the winged beast portrayed the end of the wars of Ragnarok.

To prove that this dragon is Nidhogg of Ragnarok, he has a leafy tail, showing his relationship to the World Tree. As stated, when Ragnarok ends suffering and misery also end - the evil dragon no longer gnaws away at the World Tree – he is banished from the forest. The seed of man is preserved and Lif and Lithrasir are free to re-populate the world. Fertility prevails and the dragon’s evil stranglehold on life ends shown by the hare chasing the dragon. Spring prevails, ending the awful long winter also shown by the hare chasing away the dragon.

6. The Crowing Cocks

On the north side of Humberstone church tower there are, what I believe to be, two cocks, both of which are highly weathered. They flank the central frieze of the Odin’s hunt scene, but, like all the reliefs on the church, I believe they are out of place.

The crowing cocks of Ragnarok
Cocks in Christianity represent resurrection, I’ve been told, but they aren’t a common symbol in Britain. Cocks feature heavily in Norse mythology. There are three crowing cocks/roosters that announce the start of Ragnarok, once of which is Gullinkambi (which translates to “Golden Comb”). The other two are called are Fjalar in the wood Gálgviðr, and there is reference to an unnamed rust-red rooster in Hel.

In the Poetic Edda poem, it says:

Then to the gods crowed Gollinkambi,
He wakes the heroes in Odin's hall;
And beneath the earth does another crow,
The rust-red bird at the bars of Hel.

The Överhogdal tapestries are a group of extraordinary well preserved textiles dating from the Viking Age that were discovered in Överhogdal, Sweden. One shows the world tree, Yggdrasil, on which is perched a rooster, thought to be either Gullinkambi or Fjalar.

The two carvings at Humberstone are different in that they are facing two different ways, but there are both clearly sat within a tree as there are branches above and below them. We can therefore infer that they are Gullinkambi and Fjalar, not the rust-red rooster of Hel as they are sitting on branches, most likely of the world tree.

Fjalar called upon the giants while Gullinkambi called upon the gods and fallen human heroes to the Ragnarok battle. The third, rust-red rooster, missing from the church carvings, summoned the spirits of the underworld – those that lived in Hel.

7. Star and moon

There are two almost identical images of the ancient star and crescent symbol on the eastern sideof the church tower. These, like the two cockerels/roosters, are almost square in shape and look to be made of the same, darker stone.

Star and Moon symbols on the church tower
The star of the symbol is eight-pointed, sitting above a crescent moon. The eight-points is an important observation as this is a common way the ancient people portrayed the planet Venus, one of the brightest stars in the night sky. Eight is the number of years it takes the planet to return to the exact same point in the zodiac on the exact same date and hence Venus has been portrayed as an eight-pointed star throughout history.

The symbol of the Babylonian goddess Ishtar was the eight-pointed star and crescent, and in time she became synonymous with the Roman goddess Venus, after whom the star was named.

So, the planet Venus, the brightest of the celestial bodies, is represented by an eight-pointed star, but is this star mentioned in Norse mythology? Well, it appears so.

There isn’t a known goddess like Ishtar, Aphrodite or Venus, who was associated with the planet (or star). There was the goddess Freya, the goddess of love and beauty, but there is no known celestial symbolism associated with her. Instead there is a legend of a toe. The Vikings liked to be different!

The myth of Aurvandil’s Toe is recorded by Snorri Sturluson in the Skáldskaparmál:

“Thórr went home to Thrúdvangar, and the hone remained sticking in his head. Then came the wise woman who was called Gróa, wife of Aurvandill the Valiant: she sang her spells over Thórr until the hone was loosened. But when Thórr knew that, and thought that there was hope that the hone might be removed, he desired to reward Gróa for her leech- craft and make her glad, and told her these things: that he had waded from the north over the river Élivága (Icy Stream) and had borne Aurvandill in a basket on his back from the north out of Jôtunheim. And he added for a token, that one of Aurvandill's toes had stuck out of the basket, and became frozen; wherefore Thórr broke it off and cast it up into the heavens, and made thereof the star called Aurvandill's Toe. Thórr said that it would not be long ere Aurvandill came home: but Gróa was so rejoiced that she forgot her incantations, and the hone was not loosened, and stands yet in Thórr's head. Therefore it is forbidden to cast a hone across the floor, for then the hone is stirred in Thórr's head.”

On Humberstone church, the eight-pointed star is above the crescent moon, which, due to this Old Norse myth, could well represent the boat that carries Aurvandill. The river could well represent the Milky Way, which looks like a river flowing across night sky. The Milky Way and has often been associated with rivers and oceans in world mythology. Whilst Aurvandil was inside the boat, Thorr broke off his frozen toe and cast it into the heavens, above the boat. Many scholars have associated Aurvandil’s toe with the planet Venus, and now, thanks to this carving on Humberstone church, we can now say that the boat represents the crescent moon in the myth. When in conjunction, the crescent moon and Venus is an utterly breathtaking sight and it is no wonder the Viking writers created a myth once this heavenly sight was viewed.

On his website on Norse Constellations, Timothy Stephany agrees, although he states that the moon of the Norse ‘star and crescent’ is a bear claw:

“Aurvandil’s Toe – Sometimes wrongly thought to be a Norse constellation is actually the Morning Star, the planet Venus. Venus is sometimes the brightest object in the evening after sunset or in the morning after sunrise (when the Moon is not out). Often paired with the crescent Moon, both were very early associated with bear claws, Aurvandil specifically equivalent to Grendel in this regard.”

Grendel is a character from the famous Norse poem Beowulf, and, as Timothy points out, is the same person as Aurvandil, who is sometimes known as Erundel or Orendil.

Grendel was the seminal god of the Morning Star, Venus, who was a beast or a bear and son of the Sun goddess. Timothy points out that the crescent moon is represented in the Beowulf myth, not as a boat, but as the bear hero - Beowulf himself. The pairing of the crescent Moon with the Morning Star is an iconic image that has been adopted on several modern national flags and was depicted as rock art by stone-age humans.  Whether as awe-inspiring for its beauty or its significance there seems good reason to suppose that people would ask what they were and how they were related, and tell their story.

6. Hubba-Stone?

So Humberstone was a miniature Danish landscape. Leicester’s only standing stone guarded the underworld; intricate reliefs told the great Scandinavian myths of old and the settlement was named after the conquering Prince Hubba, which brings us to the final church carving.

The badly weathered figure of a man lies alongside Surtr on the south side of the tower. Christian’s identify this, for reasons unknown, as St. Paul, but with high resolution photographs and digital enhancement, I now think that this may be Prince Hubba himself.

Could this be a badly-eroded Prince Hubba?
This is a bold statement, I know, but there is evidence behind this claim. The figure has an elongate head which protrudes out of the archway he is standing inside. Due to the shape of the elongation, the figure is clearly wearing a conical hat, very similar to a Viking helmet worn by the conquering warriors. You can see the shape of the figure quite clearly and you can easily trace his right arm and hand, which is holding a large sheet, or flag, that covers half of his upper body. The shape of this flag can also be traced and looks like a quarter of a circle, or triangle with a rounded outside edge, a bit like a traditional Spanish fan. So who had quarter-circle flags in the ancient world? Not the Spanish, but the Vikings!

The flag is known as the ‘Raven Banner,’ and bears a striking resemblance to the ornately carved "weather-vanes" used aboard Viking longships. Scholars conjecture that the raven flag was a symbol of Odin, who was often depicted accompanied by two ravens named Huginn and Muninn. Its intent may have been to strike fear in one's enemies by invoking the power of Odin.

What we do know is that it was the flag used by Prince Hubba and the first mention of a Viking force carrying a raven banner is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the year 878. It says:

“And in the winter of this same year the brother of Ivar and Halfdan landed in Wessex, in Devonshire, with 23 ships, and there was he slain, and 800 men with him, and 40 of his army. There also was taken the war-flag (guðfani), which they called "Raven".

So, on the south face of Hubba’s Stone church we have a relief of a helmeted Viking warrior holding the Raven Banner that was the same banner, or flag, carried by Prince Hubba. This could well be a carving of the god Odin, but it is just as likely, if not more likely, to be the man the village is named after – Prince Hubba himself.

7. Dedication to the Homeland

There are two more friezes on the south side of the tower that deserve our attention; one is positioned at the head of Hubba and the other at the feet of Surtr. Like the crescent and star and rooster carvings, they are made from dark-coloured stone. They each display a cinquefoil surrounded by four flowers. They have been interpreted as symbols of Leicester’s Norman earls, which is not inaccurate; the cinquefoil was adopted by Robert FitzParnell who reigned over Leicester from 1158 to 1205. With the tower of Humberstone church being constructed in the mid-thirteenth century, this would fit perfectly if indeed the carvings were the same age as the tower. The problem is that the carvings are clearly not the same age.

The earliest depiction of the cinquefoil in Leicester
If the Humberstone cinquefoils are Norman in origin, it would make them the oldest depictions of Leicester’s symbol in the county. What I am proposing is a new interpretation, that these cinquefoils pre-date the Norman era and have no direct association with the Norman earls who adopted it as their symbol. It is my thought that the Vikings Ingwar and Hubba were the first to bring the cinquefoil into the Leicester.

Even if my Viking interpretations of the other stone reliefs are accepted by historians and archaeologists, I believe it would be an almost impossible task to convince my learned scholars that the cinquefoil had entered Leicester with the Viking princes as opposed to the Norman earls. I make such a suggestion because I do believe that all of the carvings at Humberstone were made at the same time by the same artist. Stylistically they are the same and the cinquefoils are made from the same stone as four of the other reliefs. The cinquefoils also appear with four flowers, something which has never been seen in Leicester as the Norman earls displayed theirs as a solitary ermine cinquefoil.

This  evidence  may well be true  but if  I am  to allude to a  Viking origin, there needs to be some historical evidence that shows that the Danish princes adopted the cinquefoil before the Norman earls, and it seems there is.

Hedeby (meaning heathland) was once the most ancient town in Denmark until the site became part of Germany. It was the largest Nordic city during the Viking Age, an important trading settlement. It flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries but was abandoned after its destruction in 1066.

Researcher Michael Harris has explored the history of Hedeby and notes that “in the 9th century, the famous Viking Ragnar was ruler of Hedeby and was captured and killed in York.” Ragnar is a descendant of the Kings of Angle and, as we have already discussed, was Ingwar and Hubba’s father. Harris continues:

“The best known symbol of the Kings of Angle is the raven (Latin Corvus).  The corvus was symbolic of the curved (Latin curvus) fort at Hedeby.  The raven was carried into battle by the kings of Angle on the raven banner.  The raven is also found as a personal emblem of the Rus kings of Kiev.  The raven is also found on coinage minted by the Kievan Rus kings, including coins produced by Yaroslav "the Wise" and coins minted by Vladimir "the Great."

As we have already seen, the Raven Banner was carried into Britain by Ragnar’s son, Hubba, and the origin of the Raven Banner was Hedeby fort, of which Ragnar was once ruler. Hedeby’s importance to the Vikings is noted in history. It was as the most significant market town in ancient Scandinavia and many places in Normandy and England were named in honour of Hedeby, using various combinations of features by which Hedeby was known. Harcourt is no different. Har has the meaning of bristling, and Harcourt has the meaning of bristling defensive enclosure. Hedeby was once ringed with a high wall (still be seen today) topped by a thick Hawthorn hedgerow, which provided a significant layer of extra defense. Projecting from the southwest corner was a set of rays or limbs also topped with defensive hedges (also still seen today). This was a way of funnelling invaders into pockets where they would be unable to coordinate. As stated, the raven was a symbol of the curved fort, which is reflected so brilliantly in the Raven Banner.

Ingwar and Hubba raided Britain to avenge the death of their father and Hubba in particular carried the symbol of his homeland – the Raven Banner. There are numerous other symbols that are associated with Hedeby and one is the cinquefoil, the five-petalled rose that became so important to Leicester’s Norman earls. If Humberstone really was a settlement named after Hubba, then the cinquefoil on the church is likely to be a symbol of Hubba’s fatherland – Hedeby.

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by Matthew Sibson

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